Friday, March 13, 2020

Understanding of Participant Observation The WritePass Journal

Understanding of Participant Observation Abstract Understanding of Participant Observation ) explains that a detailed description of an event or people’s experiences allow observers to analyse situations exhaustively. In terms of my study, I chose participant observation since I felt it would help me gather relevant data on what is happening in the London Underground. While this type of observation allows for more in-depth observation of events and people’s actions (Muchison, 2010), participant observation has also some limitations.   First, there is a need to immerse one’s self in the world inhabited by participant. This is accomplished by taking the tube as a mode of transportation to experience what others are experiencing when taking this transportation. Part of participant observation is to interview people regarding their experiences. This might be a challenge since participants might not be willing to be interviewed while in the tube. It should be noted that there are many commuters in the tube who do not know each other. This might be a chall enge when collecting data since participants might be wary of answering questions from a researcher (Hek et al., 2011). Polit et al. (2013) reiterate that participants might not act naturally since they are aware that the researcher is observing them. This presents some bias in the data since behaviour of the participants might not be reflective of their actual behaviour. Meanwhile, reflexivity in data would allow researchers to interpret data according to the perceptions of the participants. Researchers might also bring a degree of bias and subjectivity when they collect data and information from the participants (Murchison, 2010). The researcher’s own perceptions, feelings and knowledge might be used to interpret actions, conversations and expressions manifested by people riding in the tube. There is the risk that interpretation of data becomes highly subjective. However, this could be avoided if the researcher allows participants to confirm findings and inform the researcher whether interpretation of the interviews is accurate. Hek et al. (2011) emphasise that subjectivity could be prevented by objectively interpreting data. This is done through adopting a nonjudgmental attitude, being open and genuinely interested in what participants are saying (Oermann, 2010). This would lead to data that are more reliable since researchers allow participants to verify the findings. In my experience, I adopted a nonjudgmental attitude to help me empathise with what the partic ipants are saying to me. Placing myself in their situation helped me better understand what they are expressing to me during my collection of data. Parahoo (2006) states that it is important to define phenomena and experiences according to the participant’s perceptions. Reflection I felt that I am part of the community of commuters in the tube since I regularly use this as a mode of transportation. I felt that this is an advantage to me since in-depth analysis of the behaviour of the commuters involves immersing one’s self in the actual environment. Hence, my previous experiences commuting in the tube could help me understand what other people might be experiencing while commuting in the tube. I also realised that different people ride the tube and their diverse background could add to the complexity of analysing the cultural behaviour of commuters in the tube. However, I also realised that the ethnographic method would yield valuable information on the general behaviour of commuters in the tube. Finally, ethnographic method was appropriate for my research question since this helped me form an objective and detailed description of what is happening in the tube. Conclusion Participant observation is an effective tool in collecting anthropological data since this allows researchers to immerse in natural settings. This helps researchers collect more reliable data as participants are observed in actual settings. References: DeWalt, K. Dewalt, B. (2011) Participant observation: A guide for fieldworkers. Plymouth, United Kingdom: Rowman Altamira. Hek, G., Judd, M. Moule, P. (2011) Making Sense of Research, 4th ed., London: Sage Publications. Murchison, J. (2010) Ethnography Essentials: Designing, conducting, and presenting your research, London: John Wiley and Sons. Oermann, M.H. (2010) Writing for publication in nursing, 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Lippincott. Parahoo, K. (2006) Nursing Research: Principles, Process and Issues, 2nd ed., London: Palgrave Macmillan. Polit, D., Beck, C.T. and Hungler, B.P. (2013) Essentials of Nursing Research. Methods, Appraisal and Utilization, 8th ed. Philadelphia, Lippincott.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

CASE STUDY ANALYSIS Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

CASE STUDY ANALYSIS - Essay Example he brains behind the business including the friends of Holly Tucker and Sophie Cornish have had a wealth of experience in marketing and the media industry, having worked with big brands including the top five advertising agencies, major magazine houses, the Boots and L’Oreal. This must have injected a lot of skills and knowledge into the business successfully making it one of the awards winning online market places whose popularity cannot be overemphasized across the globe. The reputation of these brains has gone unchallenged. It follows then that they must have contributed immensely to the success of the business (Press release, 2010). The fact that the business has a variety of products ranging from garden to gourmet, bracelets to handbags, lingerie to linen, cushions to kid’s clothes, and scarves to stationery has also contributed a great deal to the success of the business. Furthermore these products are originally made (Gilmour, Matthews & Holden, 2011, p.103). This has boosted the business attracting customers from across the globe. Indeed, fantastic is the word to describe the products. People love beautiful things; they want to be associated with such fantastic products. These products are found in notonthehighstreet.com. As such people come flowing for the products that are largely seen to enhance their individual happiness and social well being. Another factor that is likely to have contributed to the success of this high profile business is the early realization of the importance of the modern information and communication technologies. The business has significantly taken advantage of the modern technologies thereby enhancing its marketing. The use of the internet for the promotion of the services, online marketing is a fundamental tool that this business has used to get to the point where it is. Companies like notonthehighstreet.com are likely to face certain challenges especially during the first years of operation. One of such major

Monday, February 10, 2020

Social media network Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Social media network - Essay Example In the past, when there were no cell phones, e-mails or chatting, people had no other means of communication but to post letters to their loved ones abroad. Those letters took days and often weeks to reach the destination, and an equal amount of time would be consumed by the reply to reach the original sender. Thus, a single question asked by the original sender might take weeks to be answered. Today, people can have their question answered within a fraction of a second. This has promoted understanding among the family members. While the social media networking has generally increased the frequency of chat among the family members, it has also played a very important role in disrupting the familial relationships by developing controversies and confusions among the family members. â€Å"While the network does offer opportunities for meaningful social interactions and self-esteem boosts, it also opens a Pandora’s box of options for spying, stalking and other insecurity- and jealousy-driven actions between lovers† (O’Dell, 2011). Since the introduction of such social media websites like Facebook and Twitter, people have been able to spy on their spouses’ activities, links and interactions. A lot of husbands have found out that their wives have been cheating upon them by having extra-marital affairs and so have many wives. People that are too sensitive about relationships cannot see their spouses making friends with other people. Children happen to be the biggest, if any, victims of the social media networking. A lot of children have used the social media websites in the negative way. Numerous cases of child pornography have surfaced in the recent years in which a child has either posted his/her own nude photo or the nude photos of some of the class fellows on the internet. While this may seem an exciting idea at such an immature age, many people have to bear the consequences of such actions for the rest of their

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Early Reading Program Essay Example for Free

Early Reading Program Essay The article Experts Eschew Narrow Reading of Early-Literacy Study by Kathleen Kennedy Manzo discusses an important topic, focused on promoting programs for pre-schoolers that will enhance their reading skills by the time they reach their elementary years. â€Å"A long-promised review of early-reading research concludes that teaching the alphabet and letter sounds in preschool strengthens children’s chances of success in learning to read later on† (Manzo, 2009). This is an interesting article because it clearly demonstrates how these children will benefit the early literacy programs since these will help them read better and faster. The programs will help secure these children a good future because these will ensure them of a good education that can train them as early as their pre-school years. However, these early literacy programs present problems for children, as well as to educators. For the children, these programs might put too much pressure on them. Their freedom to learn things at their own pace will be taken away. At such an early age, children will be exposed to structured learning and might become used to this type of education, which is not a good thing since not all academic institutions offer the same type. For the educators, the challenge will be to design the programs in such a way that the children will not lose interest, at the same time will be beneficial to them. Education is a significant part of securing a good future. It will improve ones chances of obtaining jobs that can support him or her financially. It can also help a person realize what he or she wants to do in life and maximize his or her potentials to the fullest. Early literacy programs should be carefully planned such that minimal problems will be met along the way. This is important in order to not jeopardize the childrens academic lives and ultimately, their future. Reference Manzo, K. K. (2009, January 21). Experts Eschew Narrow Reading of Early-Literacy Study. Retrieved June 5, 2009, from http://www. edweek. org/ew/articles/2009/01/08/18read. h28. html

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

America Must Join the International Community Essay -- Politics Politi

For the past century, Americans have viewed the United States as standing as a symbol of strength, freedom, and prosperity. Recently, however, this symbol of higher society has been directly attacked by those who strongly disagree with the values projected by the United States. This is one of the first times that the stance of America has even been questioned. The answer to this is scattered in many places and divided into two different categories-- where the people of America stand as citizens of a country under attack, and were America as a nation stands in global respects. The people of America have been taught and expect to have the right to trust their government. The Constitution and governing institutions are set to serve the people and their rights. However, in past situations of war, American citizens have been deceived and blatantly lied to. In 1964, President Lyndon B Johnson officially declared war on Vietnam. The action that directly influenced this declaration is known as the Tonkin Gulf Incident. A US destroyer was attacked and sunk in the international waters of the Tonkin Gulf. President Johnson conveniently left out information to Congress and American citizens and called this attack unprovoked and used it as an excuse to launch full-scale mobilization. He eagerly exploited symbolism and patriotism while deceiving the American public as well as Congress. The government continued to hide details of how devastating the progress and causalities were throughout the duration of the war. Most Americans today still wonder what went on during Op eration Desert Storm during the late 1980's and are mostly let in the dark about incidents in Kosovo. It is hard to leave your immediate future in the hands of a government t... ... back us militarily, and now it is America's turn to recognize these nations as economic and cultural equals. The United States has always been the first nation to assist others when times of need. Never before have these favors been asked for reciprocation. This constant requirement to help others in need has also helped Americans to build egos and look upon the country as indestructible. Having to ask other nations for support is a humbling experience for the United States and will be an important agent in assisting the incorporation of America into the global network. As devastating as these past events have been to the confidence of the American people, perhaps the catastrophe can be used in a positive way. This attack was an indirect call on Americans to open their eyes and look toward the rest of the globe and open their arms to the international community.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Every Man Dies but Not Every Man Really Lives Essay

â€Å"Every man dies but not every man really lives† was among the few words written by Sir William Ross Wallace, an American poet during the 1860s. Well, as for me I want to live my life to the fullest before I leave to my eternal home up there. Having a bucket list simply keeps me on track to full fill every minor and major thing I want to do before I kick the bucket. The very first item on my list is to tell my mother that I love her. I believe in love at first sight because since the very first day I opened my eyes until to this very second, I still love my mom. My mom is my best friend and my hero because she has been with me through my laughs, heart breaks, tears and everything that came in between. Since babies are precious angels gifted from heaven, I would not want to miss the next thing on my list which is to make a baby laugh. That moment of being so satisfied upon witnessing the joy on their faces is a feeling of no value. Next, I want to make a difference in a beggar’s life by taking some incredibly small steps which will mean so much to them some day. Back to the olden days blockbuster ‘Dr No’, right up to ‘Casino Royale’ that hit the box office in year 2006 will be one of the thing I want to do which is to watch all of James Bond’s movies. Just like how Alex Thompson wrote a poem entitled ‘My First Time’ to share his experience milking a cow, I want to roam freely and spend one week of my life to learn how to milk a cow. Besides that, I want to go on a holiday with no luggage to add a little more spice to the memories I will take back. The ‘Steel Dragon’ roller coaster in Spaland located in Nagashima, Japan will be one thrilling ride I would not want to miss. To add more excitement, I will pay the risk to swim with a shark and to swing myself in the sky on a trapeze. Besides that, one thing I will definitely do is to push a policeman down the street and run away. To appreciate mother-nature and the greens that provided me sufficient oxygen to respire, I will plant a tree with my name carved on it. Among the crazy things that I do not want to miss to do is to pretend to be invisible just like drawing a picture using a white crayon on a white paper. From laughing at a public phone to confessing my love to a traffic light, I wish to do all kind of things that will make people think I just lost my mind for one simple reason that I wish to relate to the sayings of Mahatma Gandhi, ‘Live every moment of your life as if there is no tomorrow and as if there is no one watching’. Among the few last things I will do is to fall in love. Somewhere between laughing for no reason, stupid arguments, and making fun of each other, I will fall for the ‘him’ who is willing to catch me when I fall. Elvis Presley put it best in his classic love songs and I want to fall in love with no regrets. I want to be in love with a love that is nothing because nothing last forever and therefore my love will last forever. With commitments, trust and care I want to fell so alive to be in love with the right man. Finally, I will prepare letters and leave it to cope up with my loved one once I am gone just like how Gerard Butler did to Hilary Swank in the movie, ‘P.S. I Love You’. ‘As a well-spent day brings happy sleep, so a life well used brings happy death’ said by Leonardo da Vinci is the one thing that keeps me going and to stand up to live every day of my live doing things I want to do by simply being just the way I am.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Prezygotic vs. Postzygotic Isolations Compared

Diversity in life on Earth is due to evolution and speciation. In order for species to diverge into different lineages on the tree of life, populations of a species must be isolated from each other so they are no longer able to reproduce and create offspring together. Over time, mutations then build up and new adaptations become evident, making new species that came from a common ancestor. There are many different isolating mechanisms, called prezygotic isolations, that prevent species from interbreeding with each other. If they do manage to produce offspring, there are more isolating mechanisms in place, called postzygotic isolations, that ensure the hybrid offspring are not selected for by natural selection. In the end, both types of isolations are designed to drive evolution and make sure that speciation is the desired outcome. Which types of isolations are more effective in the view of evolution? Are prezygotic or postzygotic isolations the preferred deterrent for species interbreeding and why? While both are very important, they have their strengths and weaknesses in speciation. Prezygotic Isolations Strengths and Weaknesses The biggest strength of prezygotic isolations is that it prevents a hybrid from even happening in the first place. Since there are so many prezygotic isolations (mechanical, habitat, gametic, behavioral, and temporal isolations), it stands to reason that nature prefers these hybrids not even form in the first place. There are so many checks and balances in place for prezygotic isolation mechanisms, that if species manage to avoid being caught in the trap of one, then another will prevent the hybrid of the species from forming. This is especially important to prohibit mating between very different species. However, especially in plants, hybridization does occur. Usually, this hybridization is between very similar species that have much more recently diverged into different lineages from a common ancestor in the relatively recent past. If a population is divided by a physical barrier that leads to speciation due to the individuals not being able to get to each other physically, they are more likely to form hybrids. In fact, there is often an overlap of habitat called the hybridization zone where this type of interaction and mating occurs. So while prezygotic isolation is very effective, it cannot be the only type of isolation mechanism in nature. Postzygotic Isolations Strengths and Weaknesses When prezygotic isolation mechanisms fail to keep species in reproductive isolation from each other, the postzygotic isolations will take over and ensure that speciation is the preferred route for evolution and diversity among species will continue to increase as natural selection acts. In postzygotic isolation, hybrids are produced but tend not to be viable. They may not survive long enough to be born or have major defects. If the hybrid makes it to adulthood, it is often sterile and cannot produce its own offspring. These isolation mechanisms ensure that hybrids are not the most prevalent and species remain separate. The main weakness of postzygotic isolation mechanisms is that they must rely on natural selection to correct the convergence of species. There are times this does not work and the hybrid actually makes a species regress in their evolutionary timeline and revert to a more primitive stage. While this sometimes is a desirable adaptation, more often than not it is actually a set back on the evolution scale. Conclusion Both prezygotic isolations and postzygotic isolations are necessary to keep species separate and on divergent paths of evolution. These types of reproductive isolations increase biological diversity on Earth and help drive evolution. Even though they are still dependent upon natural selection to work, it ensures that the best adaptations are kept and species do not regress back to a more primitive or ancestral state through hybridization of once-related species. These isolation mechanisms are also important to keep very different species from mating and producing weak or not viable species from taking up important resources for individuals that actually should reproduce and pass down their genes to the next generation.